A mule column of the 2nd Punjabi Regiment carries supplies to the front line, Burma, 1944. Having mobilized in 1939 the 4th and 15th Battalions had been retained at home where the 15th rendered valuable service training reinforcements for units overseas. 1915.11 Macedonia Report Broken Links or Other Site Issues to the Webmaster at "contact", Copyright 2002 , 2003 - British Armed Forces and National 1945.03 Italy 1 Gds Bde In this World War the numbers of Infantry Battalions raised by the Regiment was eleven only out of which only the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 1/5th saw active service overseas. 1946 - 4th and 5th Battalions ceased to be operational following occupation duties in Dusseldorf and the Ruhr respectively. Active: 16 March 1689 – 28 February 2006: Allegiance In 1969 the Regiment was amalgamated with the South Wales Borderers to form the Royal Regiment of Wales. 1943 Italy The second was against Dutch-owned Java, but occupied by the French. 1939 Palestine 1912 Bordon 3 Bde 'The History of The Welch Regiment 1919-1951' Dates: Locations: Higher Formation/Remarks.... 1st Battalion, The Welch Regiment.... 1945.05: Austria. The 3rd Militia Battalion of the Regiment was also embodied and served as a separate unit and with great with distinction from 1900-1902. 1803 - A second Battalion of the 69th (2/69th) was raised and was in garrison in Belgium when Napoleon escaped from Elba. 1812 - The war against the United States lasted two years and was fought mainly on the Canadian border. Returning to Egypt it became the 37 (Welch) Beach Brick until May 1944. 1947 UK depot 'History of the services of the 41st (The Welch Regiment)' by Captain and Adjutant D.A.N. Known as Lieutenant Colonel Edmund Fieldings Regiment of Foot (or the Invalids), between 1719 and 1787 it carried out garrison duties in Portsmouth, Plymouth and the Channel Islands. The majority of the formations deployed in Burma were Indian Army formations, albeit most contained units from the British Army within their establishment. 6th (Glamorgan) Battalion The Welsh Regiment TF. Quick Marches of the British Armed Forces – audio recordings in four volumes The 2nd Battalion saw its bitterest fighting along the Taungoo-Mawchi Road where for a hundred miles, with deep jungle on either side, the Japanese defended vigorously all the way. 1881 - As the result of General Order 41 of 1 May the eighty-two single Battalion Regiments in the Army were amalgamated by pairs. London: Hatchards, 1889: H. … The 41st was most heavily engaged at Inkerman, the last occasion on which the Colours were carried in Battle. Gaza, El Mughar, Jerusalem, Jericho, Tell 'Asur, Megiddo, Eventually the Battalion reformed in Egypt joining the 4th Indian Division and moved again to the Western Desert. A chronological history of both Regiments follows: 1719 - When units were needed for garrison duties at home in order to release active units for service overseas in the wars against the French, a number of the more active out-pensioners of the Royal Hospital at Chelsea, who were fit for light duties at home, were enrolled and formed Colonel Edmund Fielding's Regiment of Invalids. British Army. See more ideas about regiment, welsh, world war. 1948.06.14 amalgamated with 2nd Battalion without change of title Pages in category "Military units and formations in Burma in World War II" ... Welch Regiment (previous page) This page was last edited on 20 February 2018, at 17:37 (UTC). 1920.01 Ireland: Dublin 2nd Battalion, redesignation of 69th (South Lincolnshire) There were strange anomalies in pairing and it was not an easy time for the Army as a whole. Struma, Doiran 1917 '18, Macedonia 1915-18, Suvla, Sari Bair, 1815 - In June Napoleon moved up to the Belgian Frontier to attack the Allied Army commanded by the Duke of Wellington, who some years earlier had served as a Lieutenant in the 41st. plus:] At the time of the amalgamation 1st Battalion was deployed in South Africa and the 2nd Battalion in Sheffield, England; they were not to meet for some time so there were no ceremonial parades or other events to 'consummate' the pairing. Band of the Royal Corps of Signals. 2nd Battalion, Welch Regiment 2nd Battalion, Welsh Regiment were based in Aga, India when war broke out. 1881 - The Crimean War was the last occasion on which either the 41st or 69th fought under their original tiles; in this year they became respectively the 1ST AND 2ND BATTALIONS THE WELCH REGIMENT. And so the curtain was brought down on a gallant Welsh Regiment that had served its country faithfully and with distinction since 1719; although its history and exploits will live on forever in the annals of this Nation's military past. 1938 - The Territorial Army was again mobilized and in Wales the 2/5th and 15th Battalions were raised. This valedictory was less than generous to the men who had served, fought and died in the Regiment and all those involved could be mightily proud of the time they served in the Regiment and the often arduous duties they performed for Queen and Country in that time. To find a document, enter Keywords such as surname, forename and then use the select lists for War, Area of Conflict and Regiment. It was a 'Little' Inkerman fought on 26 October 1854 that Sergeant Ambrose Madden won the Victoria Cross, the first to be awarded to a member of the Regiment. The expedition was successful although the fighting was severe and casualties considerable. The newly formed Welsh Regiment went on to serve during the Second Boer War (1899-1902) fighting at Paardeburg and Bloemfontein as well as two World Wars. The Welch Regiment This infantry unit was created in 1881 and recruited in Camarthenshire, Glamorganshire and Pembrokeshire. The Boers lost an estimated 4,000 killed. 1719 - 1918' author unknown, For their share in this victory the 69th was included in a Vote of Thanks passed by both Houses of Parliament, and was awarded a Naval Crown, superscribed '12 April 1782' to be carried on the Regimental Colour. 1931 England: Aldershot 2 Bde 3. a Naval Crown superscribed "12th April 1782" 1957 Germany: Lüneburg 10 Bde The 1/5th Battalion moved to Europe in late June and fought in North West Europe distinguishing itself at 's-Hertogenbosch, the Falaise Gap, the Ardennes and the Reichwald Forest. 1892 - Following the tour in Egypt the 1st Battalion moved to Malta and there for the first time they met with the 2nd Battalion on its way by troopship to India. organised as the county regiment of Carmarthenshire, Glamorganshire The Battle of Waterloo was fought on the 18 June. 1897 Bellary 1918 - Once the war ended the Service Battalions were disbanded and the 3rd (Special reserve) Battalion was disembodied. 41st (Welch) Regiment of Foot, The 1st Battalion were first engaged in the Relief of Kimberley, where a British Force was besieged and was again in action on the 10 February at Battle of Paardeberg, where they lost heavily, and again at the Battle of Driefontein on the 10 March. 1 Militia and Special Reserve Battalion 1883 Ireland: Mullingar Information Services - 17th Battalion The Welsh Regiment, 1810 - the 69th's first expedition was against the French-held island of Bourbon, as Réunion was then called, and Mauritius. Some of the hardest fighting took place around the Falaise Gap where on 16 August 1944, near Balfour. 4th (Carmarthenshire) Battalion The Welch Regiment TA, awarded 1909 for service of 69th Regiment at the battle of It had taken 450,000 troops (including 256,000 regulars) two and half years to defeat the 'rabble' of some 87,000 Boer farmers. 1888 Sudan The war became very fluid and developed into a prolonged struggle between the light, irregular and very mobile Boers and the more heavily laden and orthodox British Army. 1919 India: Ferozepore He served with the 2nd Battalion, Welch Regiment. 1889 Malta 1893 Wales and Pembrokeshire, encompassing its Militia and Volunteer :: Best Viewed in "Any Size". Service :: Last Updated - 1st Battalion, redesignation of 41st (The Welsh) Regiment Also the battalion contributed to the guarding of the famous Berlin Train, that operated through East Germany to Berlin. Fuller No. The battle was fought out hand-to-hand in small groups and the Russian attack was finally broken. 1941 - The 1st Battalion landed on Crete in February but was overwhelmed by the enemy in fighting at Suda Bay; Canea; and Sphakia Beach. The 4th was in Northern Ireland when in June it was ordered to join the Normandy Campaign. It existed until 1969 when it … They saw action in the Burma campaign with 62nd Indian Infantry Brigade, 19th Indian Division from 1942. Relief of Kimberley, Paardeberg, South Africa 1899-1902, The Great War [34 battalions]: Mons, Retreat from Mons, Marne Tales • Guestbook 1921.01.01 The Welch Regiment 2. awarded 1909 for service of 69th Regiment. 1689. 1943-45, Crete, Canea, Withdrawal to Sphakia, Middle East 1892.09.04 at sea Between that date and 1881 the two Regiments pursued roles independent of one another, but drew closer when a common depot was established at Fort Hubberstone in 1871. Rees was killed in India on 30 April 1941. For their final overseas posting 1 Welch took over from 1SWB in Stanley Fort on Hong Kong Island. 1919 - The 1st Battalion returned to India until 1924 where it fought in Waziristan. Their marksmen at Gemaizah Fort and the remainder of the half-Battalion on the left fired section volleys driving the Dervishes from their right position and inflicting severe punishment upon them when in the open. In 1965 they became the first occupants of the newly built Battlesbury Barracks in Warminster. 1925 England: Tidworth Significantly the Battalion did not lose a man. Up to 4 Territorial and Volunteer Battalions. 1952.11 Hong Kong 1886 Egypt The Second World War ended in Europe on the 8 May and in South East Asia on 14 August. 1941.02 Crete Creforce (14 Inf Bde) 2nd Battalion spent the entire war in France and Flanders. 1941.07 ME Corps Troops 1950 - In the Spring the 1st Battalion relinquished its training role and re-formed as an active Infantry Battalion and moved to Colchester where it undertook an intense period od training prior to moving to the Korean Peninsula where the Korean War had just started. This was crewed by members of the Corps of Drums together with the RAMC staff and they would have to enter East Berlin and risk their lives to rescue any persons shot on the east side of the wall by the East German guards {VOPOS - Volkspolizei} and take them to an East Berlin hospital. Troops from the 4th Battalion, Royal Welch Regiment, 53rd (Welsh) Division, moving through damaged houses in the village of Host, near Goch, 26th of February 1945. 1944 - In May the 1st Battalion became an effective Infantry unit again and in July landed in Italy with the 56th (London) Division and took part in heavy fighting on the Gothic Line and in the Croce area. Coriano, Croce, Rimini Line, Ceriano Ridge, Argenta Gap, Italy 1914 India: Chakratta This episode is commemorated in the silver centerpiece of the 41st which was made from some of the silver that was salvaged from the Officer's Mess that was burned down at Pembroke Dock in 1905. 41st (Welch) Regiment of Foot - National Army Museum, Line, Épéhy, St. Quentin Canal, Beaurevoir, Of these latter Honours the Regiment earned sixty one. The newly appointed Colonel-in-Chief, HRH The Prince of Wales, presented new Colours to the Regiment and the traditions of both Regiments were handed to the Royal Regiment of Wales. 1751 - The Regiment of Invalids became 41st Regiment of Foot (or Invalids). The war had cost £20 million and 20,721 British soldiers lives (of whom 13,310 died of disease). 'The History of The Welch regiment. 1966.06 Hong Kong The 41st was raised in March 1719 as a Regiment of Invalids, namely Out-Pensioners of the Royal Hospital, to release active units for service overseas in the wars against the French. 1952.11.09 at sea (embarked at Pusan) 1945 Austria This battle honour is unique. 1945 Burma The Welsh Regiment had its origins in two regiments, the 41st and 69th Regiments of Foot, the first of which has long standing links with the Royal Hospital Chelsea. On 14 June as a result of Infantry reductions the 2nd Battalion amalgamated with the 1st bringing to an end nearly two hundred years of active service on both land and sea. In 1758 this Battalion was redesignated as the 69th Foot and, in 1782, linked to South Lincolnshire for recruiting purposes. 1761 - The 69th first distinguished itself at the Capture of Belle Île. 1870 - the 69th saw no further active service in the 19th Century and having served in Canada was at home in 1881. Service Battalions were formed and the total number of Battalions of The Welsh Regiment rose to thirty four. The 1st Battalion returned home and was garrisoned at Malvern, Worcester with the 2nd Battalion that had returned from Burma. Following this and after a spell at home the 69th moved East and commenced a tour of India that covered a period of twenty years. When war broke out on 4 August 1914 The Welsh Regiment consisted of 1st and 2nd Battalions, respectively, in India and at home. In South Wales the Regimental Headquarters and Depot was in Cardiff with four TA battalions situated 4th and 15th in Carmarthen and 1/5th and 2/5th in Glamorgan. 1931.03 India: Rawalpindi 1945 - In March the 1st Battalion joined 1st (Guards) Brigade in 6th Armoured Division and remained with it until the end of the war. 1956.06 Germany: Lüneburg Its antecedent regiments, the Royal Welch Fusiliers and the Royal Regiment of Wales amalgamated in 2006, uniting into one family Regiment the 23rd, 24th, 41st & 69th Regiments of Foot. 1947 - The 4th and 5th Battalions were re-formed as TA Battalions on St.David's Day. Until its amalgamation the Battle of Inkerman was commemorated annually in the Regiment on 5 November. The Japanese had just begun to consolidate the positions they had captured when ‘A’ Company fell upon them, killing 13 and wounding two more who died later. 5th Battalion The Welch Regiment, This was not to happen for another eleven years. 1927 Aden The new depot for both battalions was established at Cardiff forging links with the city that are still extant. From the start the Battalion was involved in fierce fighting around Caen, the Falaise Gap, the Ardennes and the Reichwald where it sustained very heavy casualties. A little later, when Nelson commanded HMS Captain, he came across a detachment of the 69th serving aboard his ship, greeting them as 'My Old Agamemnons' a nickname that prevailed for many years. 1881 England: Sheffield Lys, Estaires, Hazebrouck, Bailleul, Kemmel, Béthune, The Territorial Army Battalions were re-formed and the 7th (Cyclist) Battalion was absorbed into the 6th Battalion. 41st - Regiment History, 1927 - The 2nd Battalion had remained at home until moving to China to become part of the Shanghai Defence Force. 1933 Landi Kotal Baghdad, Mesopotamia 1916-18, The Second World War: Falaise, Lower Maas, Reichswald, North-West The Regiment was awarded the following battle honours: From the above Battle Honours the following were actually borne on the Regimental and Queen's Colour: ¹ Awarded for the services of the 69th Foot. The 69th continued its service afloat and served, amongst other ships, in HMS Agamemnon under the personal command of Lord Nelson, then a Captain. Of the thirty four Battalions of The Welch Regiment, nineteen served actively overseas at a cost of nearly 8000 officers and men killed or died of wounds or illness. In November the Battalion crossed the Chindwin River at Sittang, captured Pinlebu and saw some very hard fighting on the Swebo Plain. Landing at Suvla, Scimitar Hill, Gallipoli 1915, Egypt 1915-17, The 41st was raised in March 1719 as a Regiment of Invalids, namely Out-Pensioners of the Royal Hospital, to release active units for service overseas in the wars against the French. 1921.01.01 2nd Battalion, The Welch Regiment The Principal Battle Honours carried on the Colours of the Regiment's Battalions are: Aisne 1914,1918; Ypres 1914,1915,1917; Gheluvelt; Loos; Somme 1916,1918; Pilckem; Cambrai 1917,1918; Macedonia 1915-1918; Gallipoli; Gaza. 1957 - In September the Battalion underwent intensive training at Malvern, Worcestershire in preparation for a tour of duty in Cyprus. 1891 England: Devonport Inkerman 'the soldier's battle' was fought on 5 November in thick mist, through which the Russians advanced in overwhelming numbers. The 41st fought throughout the campaign gaining Battale Honours at Alma, Inkerman and Sebastopol. 1941, Kyaukmyaung Bridgehead, Maymyo, Rangoon Road, Sittang Twice between 1805 and 1825 the 69th sailed on seaborne expeditions from India. The The Welch Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1969. 1939.11 Egypt/Libya 22 Inf Bde 1937 Delhi Contact •, 1881.07.01 The Welsh Regiment "The Saints". The Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum is housed in two towers of Caernarfon Castle. The 6th Battalion became an Anti-aircraft Searchlight Battalion and was lost to the Infantry at that time. 1713 The Royal Regiment of Welch Fuzileers (royal accolade granted for service in war of the Spanish Succession) ... Kohima, Mandalay, Ava, Burma 1943-45 . George was the son of George and Doris Arthur, of Burry Port, and served with the 4th Battalion, Welch Regiment, which was the local territorial unit, attached to … For service throughout the campaign The Welsh Regiment was awarded the Battle Honours of Relief of Kinberley, Paardeburg as well as the theatre Honour South Africa 1899-1902'. Meanwhile the 1/5th and 2/5th, mobilized at the same time as the 4th and 15th Battalions, were retained at home where the 2/5ht also trained and prepared drafts for overseas although it remained at home throughout the War as a Home Defence Battalion. 1914, Aisne 1914 '18, Ypres 1914 '15 '17, Langemarck 1914 form The Royal Regiment of Wales (24th/41st Foot), [combined battle honours of 41st Regiment, and 69th Regiment, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Military units and formations established in 1881, Military units and formations of the United Kingdom in the Korean War, Regiments of the British Army in World War II, Regiments of the British Army in World War I, 1881 establishments in the United Kingdom, Royal Highland Regiment (The Black Watch), Seaforth Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs, Duke of Albany's), Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment), Prince of Wales's Own (West Yorkshire Regiment), Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own (Yorkshire Regiment), Duke of Wellington's (West Riding Regiment), Prince of Wales's Volunteers (South Lancashire Regiment), Princess Charlotte of Wales's (Royal Berkshire Regiment), Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment), Prince of Wales's (North Staffordshire Regiment), Princess Victoria's (Royal Irish Fusiliers), Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment (Royal Canadians), Prince Albert's (Somerset Light Infantry), Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Welch_Regiment?oldid=4675625. 1961 Berlin Around 1400 officers and men of the Regiment were killed or died from wounds or sickness. Welch Regiment of Fusiliers Royal Welch Regiment of Fusiliers Royal Welch Fusiliers; Regimental cap badge of the Royal Welch Fusiliers. The 41st played a leading part in the successful actions at the Siege of Detroit, the Battle of Queenston Heights, the Battle of Lundy's Lane, and Miami for which Battle Honours were awarded. 1913 - Just prior to the outset of the First World War the 2nd Battalion were undergoing a field training exercise with Aldershot Command at Bordon, whilst the 1st Battalion continued to serve quietly in India. Sgt Matchett was awarded a George Medal for rescuing two Police Officers who had been injured in a minefield. FREE Welsh regiment's records This offer ended on 2nd March 2017, but you can still search for your Welsh military ancestor If your military ancestor served in a Welsh (or Welch) regiment in either WW1 or WW2 you'll be able to see his record for free today and tomorrow. 26th Feb 1945 Moving Through. 1960 Cyprus & Libya 1904 Quetta 1902 England: Gravesend The deployment of the active Battalions of the Regiment at this time was: 1st Battalion at Tarvisio, North East Italy; 2nd Battalion at Taungoo, Burma; and the 4th and 5th Battalions in Hamburg, Germany. Scherpenberg, Arras 1918, Drocourt-Quéant, Hindenburg Lieutenant Tasker Watkins won the Victoria Cross for supreme personal bravery and inspired leadership. 1910 - The 1st Battalion were now in India and the 2nd Battalion at Pembroke Dock. Captain Hugh Rowlands was awarded the Victoria Cross for his gallantry in this battle. 1909 Egypt Regiment of Foot A 2nd Royal Welch Fusiliers mortar crew in Burma, 1944 World Wars During the First World War (1914-18), 1st Battalion fought on the Western Front and, from 1917, in Italy. 1922.12 England: Colchester Known as Lieutenant Colonel Edmund Fieldings Regiment of Foot (or the Invalids), between 1719 and 1787 it carried out garrison duti… infantry [see below] and uniting two regular battalions: 1958 - Following distinguished service in the Cyprus campaign the Battalion moved to North Africa and established its Headquarters in Benghazi with company detachments at Derna, Marj and Al Adm. 1959 - The Battalion returned to Maindy Barracks, Cardiff where it remained until moving to Berlin in 1960. Passchendaele, Cambrai 1917 '18, St. Quentin, Bapaume 1918, One historian has commented about this period: Despite the jingoism and victory bells at home, Britain had little to be proud of. He was 28 years old, and is buried in Kirkee War Cemetery, India. The regiment was created in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 41st (Welch) Regiment of Foot and 69th (South Lincolnshire) Regiment of Foot to form the Welsh Regiment, which it was known until 1920 when it … 1947 UK Both campaigned and saw service in many parts of the world - achieving magnificent records of service - ultimately to be linked under the title 'The Welsh'. Later in the same year the 41st was permitted to bear on its Colours the Prince of Wales's Plume and Motto - 'GWELL ANGAU NA CHYWYLIDD' (Rather death than dishonor). 1899.11.26 South Africa This moment was recorded in the Regimental Journal 'The Men of Harlech' in the following words 'For the first time for almost 25 years we are an all-Regular Battalion'. of Foot The battalion fought with the 14th Army during the Burma campaign. 1899 Ahmednagar 1886 - The 1st Battalion moved to Egypt where they were issued with the new khaki drill uniform consigning their redcoats they had worn from their inception to ceremonial occasions only. During the Korean War the Battalion won no less that three Distinguished Service Orders, three Military Crosses and many Mention in Despatches. 1782 - During the Napoleonic Wars in the latter part of the 18th and early part of the 19th centuries Infantry Regiments sometimes served on board ships of the Royal Navy and performed many of the duties carried out by the Royal Marines. On the 14 September 1914 at Chézy sur Aisne Lance Corporal William Charles Fuller won the Regiment's first Victoria Cross of the war when, under withering and sustained rifle and machine gun fire, he advanced one hundred yards to rescue Captain Mark Haggard who was mortally wounded; Captain Haggard's dying words of encouragement to his men 'STICK IT THE WELSH' are immortalized above the clock over the door of the main Barrack block at Maindy Barracks, Cardiff. From 23 August to 13 September this year the 2nd Battalion were chosen to undertake ceremonial guard duties at Buckingham and St. James's palaces in relief of the Guards Brigade who undertook field training at that time. In the meantime the final phases of the Napoleonic Wars were being played out in Europe. Captain Edgar Kinghorn Myles and Private Hubert William Lewis each won Victoria Crosses in 1916 at the Siege of Kut, and Evzonoi, Macedonia respectively. Here is a brief summary of the WWII service of the 2nd Battalion, The Welch Regiment: 2nd Battalion, The Welch Regiment Dehli (Independent) Brigade Area – 3 September 1939 to Early December 1939 The battalion was located at Akbar Barracks, Agra under the Delhi Independent Brigade Area until early December 1939, when it moved to Bombay on relief by the1st Leicestershire Regiment. This policy may have seemed a logical step for Ministers but some 'married' pairs felt otherwise. 1945.09: Italy. In it you will find a wealth of original exhibits, supported by film, sound and models, which tell the story of over 300 years of service. 1914.08 France and Flanders 1 Div 1939 Bombay 1881 Natal In the same year the 69th became the South Lincolnshire Regiment and for this reason The Welch Regiment played 'The Lincolnshire Poacher' as one of its Regimental Marches. In 1757 a second battalion was raised for the 24th Foot, and placed at the disposal of the Admiralty for service as marines with the fleet. After the shooting of Peter Fechter, who was left to die on the wall, the allied forces arranged for a military ambulance to be stationed on Checkpoint Charlie in the American Zone. Reducing these single Battalion Infantry regiments to forty-one resulted in the formation of two Battalion Regiments with new titles. 1702 The Welch Regiment of Fuzileers converted to fusiliers for protection of artillery (variously spelled "Fuzileers" during 18th cent.) The Welsh Regiment (or "The Welsh") was an infantry regiment of the British Army from 1881 to 1969. Pilckem, Menin Road, Polygon Wood, Broodseinde, Poelcappelle, 1928 Singapore Home » Units » British Army; The British Army entered the Second World War on 3rd September 1939 and served across all major theatres from Europe, to the Pacific, and the Far East. 1910 England: Pembroke Dock 1906 South Africa So wide-flung was the extent of the First World War that it was finally decided that each Regiment should be awarded 10 Principal Battle Honours to be borne on the Colours and that, in addition, further Honours to which it was entitled would be shown on the Army List. 1901 Subathu 4. awarded 1891 for service of 69th Regiment. He was 32 years old, and is buried at Imphal War Cemetery, Burma. Lomax, It also gained the Battle Honour 'Korea 1951-52' that remains the only Battled Honour won by any Welsh Regiment since the end of the Second World War. 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